DISTANT LEARNING A NEW PERSPECTIVE
b) The distance learning in the third millennium
c) Current situation
e) Possible future scenarios
We are discovering new ways to access knowledge. This phenomenon could change working methods of many universities and distance learning, where the use of networks and allows access to numerous libraries and documentation sources.
The fundamental change that could occur in education, because, the information technology and communication, >> << properly used can be a positive factor supporting the research work.
Everyone will receive from one way or another post-secondary education in different stages of life. Such education should, in many cases, through unknown ways, until now. Thus, it seems, that the future of distance education will be increasingly supported training with audiovisual and computer …
The impact that new communication technologies has had on education was the main topic addressed by the last World Conference on Education Superior.La conference was held from 4 to 9 October 1998 and was inaugurated by the Director General of Unesco, Sr.D. Federico Mayor Zaragoza. The conference met at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, more than 4,000 people, ministerial delegations from 183 countries; to 128 international governmental organizations, various United Nations agencies, to about 250 universities in more than 500 NGOs and a large number of attendees from around the world.
DISTANCE LERNING IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM
The title of one of the debates “of the traditional University Virtual University” by itself clarifies the direction that might follow the Open University in the XXI century. The university has been the source of much of the technical solutions (telnet, e-mail etc.) Has been the least enjoyed the contribution of new communication technologies.
The concept of distance university helps meet the challenges they face distance universities with the use of new communication technologies. Training, in that other university model (remote) requires the student a more active attitude in the learning process. Likewise, unlike traditional methods, online education is best suited to those who need or prefer, for whatever reason, independence and flexibility in the rate of access to education that allows on-line teaching (asynchrony). This type of education is suitable for the particular situation of those who are far from training centers, the lack of teachers, and all those who need some additional educational support for various reasons, outside the normal school timetable .
In the distance universities, for decades, estudianttes are responsible for their studies, guided by a tutor who ensures the quality of content they use and their individual work. The student group also works with other students. .
Spanish Distance University (UNED) launched in the seventies, a tutorial system supplemented with a variety of educational materials and audiovisual. The weekly tutorials guaranteed tracking student work.
Between 1975 and 1995 grew instead of multimedia courseware in distance learning. The online training has been gradually replacing the self-directed learning or programmed instruction, which relied on traditional media courses at the Open University. Between 1995 and 2010 has been transformed and expanded the evolution process, reconstructing the natural course media or audiovisual didactic teaching, transferring it to the networks with multimedia content updatable.,
Past experiences should be analyzed and thus reflect on the impact of the NTC, particularly on the circulation and transmission of knowledge. New versions of course materials will be developed mainly on the WWW and CD-ROMs, DVDs, MP3 and digital media future.
In fact, the Internet and its main services (www, e-mail, news, forums) were developed in response to the academic demands arising from the need for exchange of information between researchers. The use of the Internet, the WWW and hypertext facililitan exploring a vast number of materials, reference books, encyclopedias, glossaries, news articles .. However, it remains essential to the advice of the professor at this university at the time of organize the courses, curriculum and academic content. We note with concern as the lack of control over the products. Students access the most inappropriate content and use a lot of material with no educational value.
Regarding linia interactive courses can be extended by means of hypertext to other aspects of program activities: consultation, troubleshooting, etc. graphics.
The online services email newsletters, forums can be used by the teacher and student to answer questions, make group collaboration (groupware). It also allows the possibility of testing a distance.
The progress of web design courses includes the most extensive multimedia applications that can exchange information between the user and the site www. The course may include scientific notes, interactive graphics, animations, images etc..
While the issue of “quality” information sources, fundamental working committee of that world congress, is still under debate between “traditionalists” and “specialists,” the NTC begin to provide the elements of a new revolution in remote academic organization .. The concepts of “collaboration” and teaching “asynchronous” (non-response and correspondence in time) begin to be imposed by the characteristics of flexibility and training of today’s society.
To maintain pedagogical renewal fees required by the open university of the future in this new stage will not be allowed to have an Internet version of many more advanced than the current regulated. This openness and real position, given the seriousness of the subject under discussion is a prerequisite to meet the challenge that this change implies.
Education in the Information Society must, “as always” rely on science is a rational discipline that arises arrive at the truth even if it means calling into question what has been said a thousand times before.
Also because in other cases was used modern air that contribute ntc to take short-term political advantage, not really assume the important change that well-organized technological progress could lead us.
The story is always an invaluable reference for each new stage, as in the audiovisual stage there are strong arguments for and against. On the side of teachers more “traditional” about a possible devaluation of Professor multitasking, purists will see in it an pedagogical attack on freedom. Psychologists speak perhaps with reason, of psychological problems (deconcentration, dependency, infoxication) created by the computer and the excessive use of a resource as long as necessary. Real and fictitious arguments, the change is given by the use of communication technologies, as a tool << more >> in proportion and appropriate uses. It is a change in distance learning for full use of this new tool.
Distance education, which our country has been a pioneer (UNED), can maintain its reference condition. The stage of telenseñanza characteristic of audiovisual stage of distance education can overcome even seen reference to this new phase that relies more on computer technology.
POSSIBLE CHANGES IN THE DISTANCE LEARNING
Our university, with enrollment rates higher in Europe, yet has failed to understand that the current labor flexibility requires citizens to academic upgrading at different periods of their working lives and it is possible to find solutions tailored to job needs current. It is therefore not necessary to forget the traditional spirit of teaching and we are alone with a new support tool. The creation of new intermediate university degrees, oriented to the professional world can be studied as a first step in this direction.
The two key elements of the new technological approach are: organizational change and educational needs, which key ingredients are the proportion of staff and educational media and technology appropriate and necessary.
Training “asynchronous” emphasizes one of the elements of the new teaching style that allows technology, ie to study at their own pace, without the imperative of time, with a broader vision of learning.
The current distance university, characteristic of advanced technological approach that has brought the implementation of the NTC, is intended as an integrative concept of a new paradigm where physical space and the need to sync away.
The digital university concept is today the most widespread in distance learning. This concept addresses the need to deliver new services and find new ways of relating to some students who will face different forms of work in the new job ..
The NTC play an important role in training but we must not ignore the main importance of the organization associated with them. If they are not dominated the organizational, pedagogical and technological “change” will not allow a positive change in training.
Knowledge transfer is still the object of education, leading to a teaching which becomes a facilitator of a process that supports the students’ ability to discover knowledge at their own pace, in collaboration (groupware) with co- class and with the support and direction of their teachers.
This new form of teaching would get rid of the limitations of space and time, thanks to an operating mode asynchronous learning becomes a more autonomous and self-taught process.
The organization is as always, the real key to the process and the need for a new relationship between the actors.
The great challenge is to design a new organization that relies on technological means and therefore transcends without adopting a view of myth technologist or technology.
Some projects of universities rely on an infrastructure and were able to follow the progress of technology., The UNED in Spain and other European projects of the distance universities.
Any paradigm shifts have gone through several phases:
first traditional (teacher, student liability, slate, TV, radio).
second, information (active student and PC).
third, knowledge (groupware teacher and students working with mobile network).
fourth, possible use of videoconferencing applications like Skype. This last is where we go now.
The key factors of paradigm shift are the factors of time and space are no longer a limitation, asynchronous education frees students from the constraints of time. The space-distance factor is not also decisive, as the student can participate in education without being present in the academic center.
The transfer of knowledge remains the fundamental aim of education, but the student will learn to study and acquire information according to their needs at all times.
Education is open to the global space in which the language will become one of the primary keys of the expansion. Hence the great responsibility of each country with its area of ??influence-cultural linguistics.
The globalization of the education market and the emergence of new entities, deliberately located in the commercial space, will intensify the competition between the “business of education.”
Traditional concepts of assessment of students on the basis of results (exams) must adapt to new methods in the evaluation process and the research work become more important. This will escape the measure of assimilated knowledge and integrating factors more sensitive to the equation of the new professional: the ability of communication and collaboration.
The distinction between the types of education (primary, secondary, technical, vocational, university) will decline to give rise to a continuous or lifelong learning throughout working life.
Another new challenges of the new learning environment will be to design, produce or accredit centers that distribute programs to support education.
The arrival of this possible new scenario in the coming years raises the question of the necessary organization. Distance learning is more conducive to teaching ability. The new teacher should become familiar with new technologies and be prepared psychologically for an update of its role to strengthen and update their knowledge of matter that can never replace the expertise of teachers.
One of the big brakes for the dissemination of TAS in higher education is the human factor. Before any technological action is necessary to define training programs at different levels and with different target audiences. It is also necessary to consider the teacher training experts (information literacy), which would be the media technologies within educational institutions and research remotely, which likewise would be responsible for training and advice to students and the necessary updating of programs, materials, courses etc online. The latter is the more important and necessary condition for the full income of the NTC in the university.
The new teacher should, as always, focus on the quality of the research and “contents” scientific or informative of their discipline. This last point should be fully taken into account by the university authorities to ensure the success of education. Managing academic support asynchronous teachers should rest on “experts” responsible for the on-line educational programs, to facilitating communication and knowledge transfer to students.
Should familiarize responsible decision-making and train actors in the practice of these new technologies and explain their integration into the new process of transmitting knowledge. It should likewise establish jointly with teachers “experts” model type tools, programs, software, or electronic means that are appropriate to the scientific community college and make a common reflection on the redefinition of events linked to this new research situation.
The market has begun to direct elections in several directions but not necessarily consistent or appropriate. The emergence of global distance academic proposals in the coming years will shape a new market to be discovered. For this reason, in this lucrative new market exceptionally broad and should be well advised before making hasty decisions on the use of computers and relevant content that affect the quality of learning and mental health of students.
Finally it must act on the institutions to make this possible possible new role of teachers ‘expert’ is taken into account. Should be redefined which converges collaboration of the teacher and the “experts” for the various administrative for better control of the new educational process.
The goal of this process is to achieve a selective knowledge of the enormous global sources of knowledge.
Today the distance universities is taking the challenge of the new media technologies, however, in our opinion, we are in an experimental phase and new technologies are still immatures. The formation even in the case of distance learning can never replace the expertise of teachers, the necessary organization of the process by experts in selection of contents . Of course to human relations is very important in the usual process of learning.
We emphasize and make clear that this article only recommend the use under control of contents for specialist in adult education and certainly not recommend this training to youngsters about the problems of decentralization and addictions that can favour.
At the moment, as always, the expansion of the sources of information and knowledge depend of the knowledge expert of the teachers and librarians , they are the only trainers for counsel the content more appropriate for the transmission of the knowledge.
Likewise troubling is the use of contents ( websites, software, videos, video games) with a high degree of addiction,. Sex and aggressiveness that circulate among the young. The vast majority of content in the internet, they have not pedagogical interest and are without any kind of previous filter or control. Normally the content in the internet has mainly an objetive ofproe paganda and commercial interest. The content what are circulating among the young people, they are a serious threat to their mental health. The impact and consequences for the society and will be analyzed in the next article.
At the moment the network internet (arpanet) is just a military project of a government and corporations with an estrategic interest and without any institutional international regulation or control.